Note 4 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Nov. 30, 2022
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Future events and their effects cannot be determined with certainty. Therefore, the determination of estimates requires the exercise of judgment. Actual results could differ from those estimates, and any such differences may be material to the Company's consolidated financial statements. Significant estimates include assumptions about stock-based compensation expense, valuation for deferred tax assets, incremental borrowing rate on leases, valuation and carrying value of goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets, useful life of long-lived assets and allowance for sales returns.
Assets and liabilities acquired in a business combination are accounted for at fair value. The Company records the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed and intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. The excess, if any, of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. If the fair value of the assets and liabilities acquired exceed the fair value of the purchase consideration, negative goodwill is recognized in the statement of operations. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Significant estimates in valuing certain intangible assets include, but are not limited to, future expected cash flows from the utilization of trade names from a market participant perspective, useful lives and discount rates. Management’s estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates.
Goodwill resulting from a business combination is not amortized but is reviewed for impairment annually or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances occur that would more than likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. The Company has the option to perform a qualitative assessment over goodwill when events occur or circumstances change that would, more likely than not, reduce the fair value of a reporting unit. If the Company concludes, based on the qualitative assessment, that the carrying value of a reporting unit would more likely than not exceed its fair value, a quantitative assessment is performed which is based upon a comparison of the reporting unit’s fair value to its carrying value. The fair values used in this evaluation are estimated by the Company based upon future discounted cash flow projections for the reporting unit. An impairment charge is recognized for any amount by which the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its fair value.
The Company performs its review for impairment during the third quarter of each year. The Company assesses goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is defined as an operating segment or one level below an operating segment, referred to as a component. The Company’s operations constitute a single reporting unit and goodwill is assessed for impairment at the Company as a whole. At August 31, 2022, the Company determined that there was no impairment of goodwill.
Acquisitions of the assets of a business are accounted for at cost based on their allocated fair value. The Company allocates the fair value of purchase consideration to the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed and intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition dates. Such valuations require management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Significant estimates in valuing certain intangible assets include, but are not limited to, future expected cash flows from the utilization of trade names from a market participant perspective, useful lives and discount rates. Management’s estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates. Goodwill is not recognized in accounting for an asset acquisition. Acquisition related expenses are capitalized as part of the cost and allocated with the purchase consideration.
Cash and cash equivalents include bank deposits and short-term, highly liquid investments. Investments acquired with maturity dates of three months or less are considered cash equivalents.
The Company’s restricted cash – current was $0.0 million and $0.1 million at November 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The Company's restricted cash – current at November 30, 2021 represented amounts which the Company was contractually obligated to maintain. That amount was returned to the Company in January 2022.
The Company provides an allowance for its accounts receivable for estimated losses that may result from its customers’ inability to pay. The Company determines the amount of the allowance by analyzing known uncollectible accounts, aged receivables, economic conditions, historical losses, and changes in customer payment cycles and its customers’ creditworthiness. Amounts later determined and specifically identified to be uncollectible are charged or written off against this allowance. To minimize the likelihood of uncollectability, the Company reviews its customers’ creditworthiness periodically. Material differences may result in the amount and timing of expense for any period if the Company were to make different judgments or utilize different estimates. The allowance for doubtful accounts at November 30, 2022 and 2021 was $0.01 million and $0.01 million, respectively.
Inventories are principally comprised of raw materials and finished goods and are valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value with cost being determined at standard cost. The Company reviews inventories for obsolete items to determine adjustments that it estimates will be needed to record inventory at lower of cost or net realizable value. Inventory standard costs include labor, overhead, subcontracted manufacturing costs and inbound freight costs.
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and reflected net of accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, primarilyto years for computer hardware and software, furniture and fixtures, and machinery and equipment. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the useful lives of to years or lease terms. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments to property and equipment are capitalized, while expenditures for maintenance and repairs are charged as an expense as incurred. Upon retirement or disposition, the applicable property amounts are deducted from the accounts and any gain or loss is recorded in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss. Useful lives are determined based upon an estimate of either physical or economic obsolescence or both.
The perpetual, irrevocable, exclusive and non-exclusive permit to use technology with respect to the cost of patent rights is capitalized and amortized over the estimated useful life, currently estimated to be 10 to 17 years. Customer list acquired is amortized over the estimated useful life ofyears. Trademarks have an indefinite life as the Company intends to renew the trademarks indefinitely.
Long-lived assets to be held and used are analyzed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the related carrying amounts may not be recoverable. The Company evaluates at each balance sheet date whether events and circumstances have occurred that indicate possible impairment. If there are indications of impairment, the Company uses future undiscounted cash flows of the related asset or asset group over the remaining life in measuring whether the assets are recoverable. In the event such cash flows are not expected to be sufficient to recover the recorded asset values, the assets are written down to their estimated fair value. There were no impairments of long-lived assets during the years ended November 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The Company determines fair value based on its accounting policy for fair value measurement (i.e. exit price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date). See note 4 (u). The Company has not used derivative financial instruments such as forwards to hedge foreign currency exposures. The Company measures equity investments, including investments in marketable equity securities, at fair value and recognizes unrealized gains (losses) through net income (loss). The Company uses quoted prices in active markets for identical assets (consistent with the Level 1 definition in the fair value hierarchy) to measure the fair value of its marketable equity securities on a recurring basis.
The Company generates revenue through the wholesale distribution of its products and accessories to dealers/distributors, large end-users such as retail stores, security companies and law enforcement agencies, and through an e-commerce portals to consumers. Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of goods to the customer, which generally occurs when title to goods is passed and risk of loss transfers to the customer. Depending on the contract terms, transfer of control is upon shipment of goods to or upon the customer’s pick-up of the goods. Payment terms to customers other than e-commerce customers are generally 30-60 days for established customers, whereas new wholesale and large end-user customers have prepaid terms for their first order. The amount of revenue recognized is net of returns and discounts that the Company offers to its customers. Products purchased include a standard warranty that cannot be purchased separately. This allows customers to return defective products for repair or replacement withinyear of sale. The Company also sells an extended warranty for the same terms over years. The extended 3-year warranty can be purchased separately from the product and therefore, must be classified as a service warranty. Since a warranty for the first year after sale is included and non-separable from all launcher purchases, the Company considers this extended warranty to represent a service obligation during the second and third years after sale. Therefore, the Company accumulates billings of these transactions on the balance sheet as deferred revenue, to be recognized on a straight-line basis during the second and third year after sale. The Company recognizes an estimated reserve based on its analysis of historical experience, and an evaluation of current market conditions.
The Company also has a 14-day money back guarantee, which allows for a full refund of the purchase price, excluding shipping charges, within 14 days from the date of delivery. The right of return creates a variable component to the transaction price and needs to be considered for any possible constraints. The Company estimates returns using the expected value method, as there will likely be a range of potential return amounts. The Company’s returns under the 14-day money back guarantee for the years ended November 30, 2022 and 2021 were immaterial.
The Company sells to dealers and retailers for whom there is no money back guarantee but who may request a return or credit for unforeseen reasons or who may have agreed discounts or allowances to be netted from amounts invoiced. The company reserves for returns, discounts and allowances based on past performance and on agreement terms and reports revenue net of the estimated reserve. The Company's reserve for returns, discounts, and allowances for the years ended November 30, 2022 and 2021 were immaterial.
The Company accounts for shipping and handling activities related to contracts with customers as costs to fulfill the promise to transfer the associated products. Shipping and handling costs associated with the distribution of finished products to customers, are recorded in operating expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss and are recognized when the product is shipped to the customer.
Included as cost of goods sold are costs associated with the production and procurement of products, such as labor and overhead, inbound freight costs, manufacturing depreciation, purchasing and receiving costs, and inspection costs.
Current deferred revenue relates to unfulfilled e-commerce orders and sales of extended warranties for the years ended November 30, 2022 and 2021. Deferred revenue long-term primarily relates to sales of extended warranties.
Marketing and advertising related costs are expensed as incurred and are included in operating expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss and were $5.5 million and $2.7 million during the years ended November 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Research and development (“R&D”) costs are expensed as incurred and are included in operating expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss. R&D costs were $0.5 million and $0.3 million during the years ended November 30, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, the Company determines deferred tax assets and liabilities on the basis of the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities by using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent the Company believes that these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In making such a determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, tax-planning strategies, and results of recent operations. If the Company determines that it would be able to realize its deferred tax assets in the future in excess of their net recorded amount, it would make an adjustment to the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, which would reduce the provision for income taxes.
The Company records uncertain tax positions on the basis of a two-step process in which (1) it determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the Company recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. The Company records uncertain tax positions as liabilities and adjusts these liabilities when its judgment changes as a result of the evaluation of new information not previously available. Because of the complexity of some of these uncertainties, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from the Company’s current estimate of the unrecognized tax benefit liabilities. These differences will be reflected as increases or decreases to income tax expense in the period in which new information is available. As of November 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company has not recorded any uncertain tax positions in the consolidated financial statements.
If incurred, the Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income taxes on the income tax expense line in the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss. As of November 30, 2022 and 2021, no accrued interest or penalties related to income taxes are included in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The Company files tax returns as prescribed by the tax laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates. In the normal course of business, the Company is subject to examination by federal and state jurisdictions, where applicable. There are currently no pending tax examinations. The Company’s tax years are still open under statute from November 30, 2019, to the present. The resolution of tax matters is not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss, reduced by dividends, by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the year. Diluted loss per share is computed by dividing net loss, reduced by dividends, by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding plus common stock equivalents (if dilutive) related to stock options and restricted stock units.
The Company accounts for all stock-based payment awards granted to employees and directors as stock-based compensation expense at their grant date fair value. The Company’s stock-based payments include stock options and restricted stock units. The measurement date for employee awards is the date of grant, and stock-based compensation costs are recognized as expense over the employees’ requisite service period, on a straight-line basis. The measurement date for director awards is the date of grant and stock-based compensation costs for non-employees are recognized as expense over the vesting period on a straight-line basis. Stock-based compensation is classified in the accompanying Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss based on the function to which the related services are provided, which is included in operating expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss. Forfeitures are accounted for as they occur.
The fair value of each stock option grant is estimated on the date of grant by using either the Black-Scholes or the quoted stock price on the date of grant, unless the awards are subject to market conditions in which case the Company uses the Monte Carlo simulation model. Due to the Company’s limited history, the expected term of the Company’s stock options granted to employees has been determined utilizing the method as prescribed by the Security and Exchange Commission's ("SEC’s") Staff Accounting Bulletin, Topic 14. The expected term for stock options granted to non-employees is equal to the contractual term of the options. The risk-free interest rate is determined by reference to the US Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant of the award for time periods approximately equal to the expected term of the award. Expected dividend yield is based on the fact that the Company has never paid cash dividends on common stock and does not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Foreign currency transactions are transactions denominated in a currency other than a subsidiary’s functional currency. A change in the exchange rates between a subsidiary’s functional currency and the currency in which a transaction is denominated increases or decreases the expected amount of functional currency cash flows upon settlement of the transaction. That increase or decrease in expected functional currency cash flows is recorded as other income (expense), in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
The Company maintains its books and records in US Dollars, which is its functional and reporting currency. Assets and liabilities of the Company’s international subsidiaries in which the local currency is the functional currency are translated into US Dollars at period-end exchange rates. Income and expenses are translated into US Dollars at the average exchange rates during the period. The resulting translation adjustments are included in the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).
Other comprehensive income (loss) consists of foreign currency translation adjustments.
The Company follows a consistent framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure for each major asset and liability category measured at fair value on either a recurring or nonrecurring basis. Fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to settle a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, a three-tier fair value hierarchy has been established, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The guidance simplifies the accounting for income taxes by primarily addressing the following: recognition of a deferred tax liability after transition to/from the equity method, evaluation when a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill should be related to a business combination or when it should be considered a separate transaction, inclusion of the amount of tax based on income in the income tax provision and any incremental amount as a tax not based on income, and recognition of the effect of an enacted change in tax laws or annual effective tax rates in the period the change was enacted, The guidance became effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2022. Several of the amendments in the update are required to be adopted using a prospective approach, while other amendments are required to be adopted using a modified-retrospective approach or retrospective approach. The adoption of ASU 2019-12 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Pronouncements Issued but Not Adopted
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”). The FASB issued the update to simplify the measurement of goodwill by eliminating step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. ASU 2017-04 will be effective for the Company so long as it remains a smaller reporting company in the first quarter of 2024. Early adoption is permitted. Adoption of ASU 2017-04 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASU 2016- 13”). The guidance changes the impairment model used to measure credit losses for most financial assets. A new forward-looking expected credit loss model will replace the existing incurred credit loss model and will impact the Company’s accounts and other receivables. This is expected to generally result in earlier recognition of allowances for credit losses. ASU 2016-13 will be effective for the Company in December 2023 as long as it remains a smaller reporting company. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this update on the consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef